Linux and Windows both are widely used operating systems.
Before we talk about their differences and do their comparison, Let’s first take a look at what an operating system is?
Low-level system software that handles hardware and software resources on the computer and promotes basic functions such as task planning, resource management, memory management, peripherally controlled systems, networking and so on is known as the operating system.
It serves as a connection between software and computer hardware.
The most critical aspect of a computer system is an operating system. Any mobile or computer could not work without an OS!
Linux VS. Windows: Overview!
Several Operating Systems are available in the market. Among them, the most dominant and widely used Operating System is Microsoft Windows.
Approximately 83% of the world’s desktop is owned by Windows. Beside it, macOS and Linux are two other operating systems that are commonly used.
Windows is a series of OS, operating programs for personal desktops/devices or computers (PCs) developed by Microsoft.[box title=”” border_width=”1″ border_color=”#fff8ef” border_style=”solid” bg_color=”#fff8ef” align=”left”]
Each operating system includes a GUI (Graphical User Interface) with a desktop that helps the user to access all files, photos, etc.
It is programmed to operate on x86 hardware including AMD, Intel. But Windows OS works with essentially every company that has produced PCs or laptops.
Established in 1991, Linux is a UNIX-based open-source operating system. It’s software that is installed on a device beyond all other applications.
After open-source operating system users may change the original code and build distributions from it.
Linux is mainly used as a server because most web pages are created from Linux servers over the Internet.
What Is Windows Operating System?
In 1985, Microsoft released the first version of Windows Operating System which is a simple GUI, an improvement of the current MS-DOS and a significant upgrade since we think it was 1995 user release of enhanced windows and DOS of Internet support.
Today, most of the PC is running on Windows only. Windows 10, which is already dominating the market, is the latest version of Windows OS.
What Is the Linux Operating System?
Established in 1991, Linux is a UNIX-based open-source operating system.
It is also integrated with GUI ( Graphical User Interface ) and several other essential software that is used often.
Linux Operating System is also used in desktop computers, digital storing devices, mobile devices, gaming consoles, cameras, eBook readers and video recorders.
However, it is mostly used for servers.
They are essentially two layers in windows architecture. They are as follows;
- User Mode
- Kernel Mode
- User Mode
User Mode further breaks down into two parts and they are as follow:
- Integral subsystems
- Environment Subsystem
In User Mode fixed support systems (e.g. login and session managers), service (e.g. task scheduler and printing spooler), security subsystems (e.g. security tokens and access management) and user applications are integral subsystems.
The environment subsystem serves as a link between the OS kernel functions of the user-mode applications.
There are four major subsystems for the process, i.e. The LINUX subsystem for Win32/, POSIX, OS/2 and Windows.
Kernel-mode provides direct access to operating device and hardware tools.
It runs the code in a secure memory environment. It includes Executive, Microkernel, HAL (hardware abstraction layer) and Mode Driver for kernels.[box title=”” border_width=”1″ border_color=”##000000″ border_style=”solid” bg_color=”#effaff” align=”left”]
Executive services in Windows are split down into multiple subsystems. The main responsibility lies with the memory management, I/O management, management of the thread, networking and security.
The microkernel is positioned between the executive and HAL screens.
It is responsible for the coordination of multi-processors, the configuration of threads, dispatch of interruptions & anomalies, blocking, system pushing startups and process manager interfacing.[/box]
The system drivers in kernel mode enable windows to communicate with devices using hardware.
HAL is the framework between the hardware and the OS. The I / O interfaces interrupt controls and specific processors are managed.
Linux Architecture has also two layers, namely user space and kernel space.
There are four key components within these layers, i.e. User Applications or Utilities, Hardware, Kernel, System Call Interface (Shell).
The hardware comprises an external unit, including monitors, printers, CPUs, RAM, which is connected to the computer.
Now the monolithic kernel comes as the heart of the system.
There are various subsystems and modules in the Linux kernel.
It has several important functions, including machine monitoring, networking, remote access and file system, resource management and memory management.
The shell acts as a user-kernel interface and presents the kernel’s services.
About 380 device calls are usable. Such as start, leave, open, close, read are among many. Shell accepts user instructions and executes the tasks of the kernel.
Shell is divided into two categories, i.e. graphical shell and command lines shell.
We have programs operating on the shell in the outermost layer of the architecture. It may be any function such as a web server, video player, and so on.
Windows vs Linux: Distros
We need to discuss one of the most complex features of the Linux platform before we continue.
While a rather standard version structure is maintained in Windows with updates and publishes split into levels, Linux is much more complicated.
The Linux kernel, originally designed by Linus Torvalds of Finland, is now supported by all operating systems in Linux.
However, the system may be modified and modified for its own purposes as it remains open-source.
The consequence is hundreds of Linux-based devices called kernels or ‘distros.’ Their distributions. This makes choosing between them much harder than picking Windows 7, Windows 8 or Windows 10 much harder.[box title=”” border_width=”1″ border_color=”#fff8ef” border_style=”solid” bg_color=”#fff8ef” align=”left”]
Due to the nature of Open Source software, the functionality and sophistication of these distros vary considerably, and many develop constantly. The option might look intimidating, especially because their differences are not always easily obvious.
This carries its own benefits, on the other hand. The diversity of Linux distros is so great that you can always find one that suits your specific tastes. Would you want a user experience in macOS style?
You are lucky-Elementary OS is a Linux the distros that fit Apple’s feel and look.
Similarly, if you’re looking for Windows XP days, you can bring Q4OS back, which is a favourite of Microsoft users.[/box]
Many Linux specialized options are also available, such as distros to give fresh life to old, low power machines, or super-secure dishes that can be booted from a USB drive to keep you protected from odd Computers.
Many Linux versions for running servers and other company classes of applications are of course also available.
We would advise Ubuntu as a good starting point for those new to Linux.
It is very simple to use (including Windows) but it is also versatile and full of functionality to satisfy experienced tech nerds.
Windows vs Linux: Installation
The installation method of both operating systems also differs slightly from each other. Let’s discuss this.
Linux OS’s popular function is the ability to boot them live without even running the OS on the computer.
The USB or DVD image will boot. Without engaging in it, it can be a good way to quickly test whether you like distros.
You can then update the distros from the live booted operating system, or only run live as long as you like. Although it is difficult to implement more polished distros like Ubuntu, a few less user-friendly examples ask a lot more technical expertise.
In contrast, the installation of windows is more lengthy and time-consuming. But it is simple and needs a low input of users in comparison to many distros.
Windows vs Linux: Software and Compatibility
For Windows, the majority of apps are customized. Some Linux versions are available, but only for software of great popularity. The fact, however, is that Linux is not accessible for most Windows programs.
Instead, other users use a Linux program to build an alternate, free and open source. Almost every program you can think of has applications. If not, programs like WINE or VM will then run Linux with Windows applications.
These alternatives are, however, more likely than Windows to be amateur efforts.
If you need a certain program for your business, it is vital to confirm whether or not Linux runs a native version.
In contrast to Windows, there are variations in how Linux machines install programs.
Download and run a file in Windows (.exe). Linux mainly installs programs from a software repository linked to certain distros.[box title=”” border_width=”1″ border_color=”#343e47″ border_style=”solid” bg_color=”#effaff” align=”left”]
The Linux installation process is done through a Command-line apt-get command.
A system management planner does this by layering a graphical user interface into the complicated process of entering words and instructions in the correct combination.
This is the precursor of a mobile app store in many ways. Some applications may not be maintained in the archive based upon features.
The non-open access versions of proprietary apps such as Skype or Steam needs to be downloaded and updated from the source.
This is more related to the installation of Windows applications. The package for your distros can be downloaded from the website of the company, and the integrated package installer will complete the rest.[/box]
The great advantage of Windows over Linux is that virtually all programs with Windows support in mind are developed at ground level in the software stakes.
In general, compatibility concerns do not affect Windows users.
The setup is also a much simpler matter, as described above.
Windows vs Linux: Security Comparison
Although Linux is open-source when it comes to security, it is however very difficult to break through and it is, therefore, a highly secure OS compared to the other operating systems.
One of the main reasons why Linux is common and incredibly accessible is its high-tech security.
Linux has a strong user base, open-source.
Because the entire user base has access to the source code, it can detect bugs so it can be caught faster than hackers do. Linux users can then discover and fix the problem, as it is open source.
In this way, the Linux community receives a high level of maintenance from the developer’s community.
Windows users can not solve the problem by themselves, because they are not allowed to change the source code.
You would have to submit a bug to Microsoft if you consider any bugs in the program and wait until it is fixed. Users have complete administrative access to the accounts under Windows.[box title=”” border_width=”1″ border_color=”#fff8ef” border_style=”solid” bg_color=”#fff8ef” align=”left”]
This easily corrupts the entire computer when a virus hits the system. Thus, with Windows, all are at risk. Linux, on the other hand, is exposed to accounts where users have limited access, and therefore only a part of the system will be damaged if virus attacks happen.
In Windows, although it is not as stable as in Linux, we have a User Account Control System (UAC) for managing access rights. In order to enhance system security, Linux uses IP tables.
Iptables help to control network traffic by setting certain rules that are enforced by the firewall of the Linux kernel. This helps to build a secure atmosphere for any command or network control.[/box]
Linux has divided work environments to secure it against an attack by viruses. However, Windows OS is not quite divided and therefore less prone to threats.
Another big explanation why Linux is better is that as opposed to Windows, Linux has fewer users.
Linux has almost 3% of the market, while Windows has a market share of more than 80%.
As a response, hackers still tend to attack Windows, because a wide portion of users would suffer from viruses or harmful malware they make. This, on the other side, would save Linux users.
In short, Linux has some characteristics that make it better than Windows and other operating systems.
Windows vs Linux: Performance Comparison
It can be attributed to its speed that most of the world’s fastest supercomputers run on Linux.
Windows 10 is known to get slow and slow over time for its reputation for fast and smooth operation.
Linux has advanced desktop and functionality, while windows on older hardware are slow.
This is indeed faster and better than Windows 8.1 and Windows 10.
Linux is generally superior to Windows when you compare core functions of OS such as thread programming, memory management, I/O handling, File System Management, and key tools.
Linux is usually faster than windows for many reasons. First of all, Linux is very light while it is fatty for Windows. Many programs run in the background in windows and eat RAM.
Second, the file system is highly organized in Linux. Files are placed very close to one another in chunks.
This really easily allows read-write activities. Windows, on the other hand, is a dumpster and files can be found anywhere.
Windows vs Linux: Updates
In the windows, updates come in an uncomfortable way, such as printing, but suddenly pop up updates make users frustrated and take more time to install.
Users can control updates in Linux completely, install them whenever necessary and take little time without restarting.
Windows vs Linux: Licensing
Users will not have a source code in Windows (can not modify a software) and a number of licenses based on it. Only those numbers are available for users who have a Microsoft license.
Users may modify the software, resume use on any number of systems and even sell the modified version in Linux, using GPL-Licensed Operating System.
Windows vs Linux: Final Verdict!
Windows 10 is no question more impressive and better than the previous versions. Windows 10 has provided many different features, such as Cortana Digital Assistant, Microsoft Window Edge, Microsoft 3D Lab.
It can also perform bash commands for Linux. In Windows 10, we also have virtual workspaces that enable its users on different desktops to run applications.
If you compare Windows 10 to Linux Mint 19 desktop, you’ll find that Linux will not use much RAM in the background when compared to Windows in the ideal state.
In comparison, 373 megabytes of RAM was used by Linux and 1.3 gigabytes was used by Windows more than for Linux or about 1000 megabytes.. This comparison was made when no app was opened on a brand-new installation.
Windows 10 is, therefore, a heavy resource compared to Linux Mint 19.
In addition, Windows 10 updates are some kind of linear and sluggish in nature. We get faster and better package updates in Linux.
However, when it comes to pace, Linux beats Windows 10.
The Windows user interface is very nice when you think about the look and feel and provides multiple features. Linux UI is very straightforward and easy.
Alternatives of Windows software are nevertheless also accessible in Linux. When it comes to gaming, Linux Mint is hard to do and does not deliver many games as opposed to Windows 10. Gaming is also a Linux drawback.
Conclusion – Wrapping it up!!
Having said that, it totally depends on the user’s choice which operating system they are comfortable with.
We have stated all the major facts, but it would be wrong to state one operating as the best.
Both are equally good and transcend each other in different aspects. We hoped that you have learned a lot from this guide. Let us know what you think about the best operating system.